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Nutrition, Recipes

Gooey Brownies (Gluten-Free & mostly Paleo)

October 17, 2017

Sweet, decadent and ultra-fudgey, these almond flour brownies are sinfully delicious. And did I mention gluten-free with little refines sugar?

As an adult, I’ve had an obsession with the perfect brownie, which may have stemmed from growing up in an Asian household where I was surrounded by red bean desserts, and other no chocolate items! The definition of a brownie is something that is sinful and requires a cold glass of milk to wash it down with(coconut for me!)

This brownie is a new HACK. Made with Almond flour, I have now made a healthier brownie that I am happy to share with my child and family. If you are looking to make it completely without refined sugar, you can omit the semi-sweet chocolate chips and add cocoa nib but I can’t promise the same result.

Just a reminder, the butter is to be browned and the batter needs to sit in the fridge doing its magic for at least 24hours before going into the oven. Happy Baking!

Ingredients:

  • 71g butter, melted
  • 1 Cup of xylitol
  • 1/4 -1/2 cup of Coconut sugar(I recommend ¼ cup because of the chocolate chips but if you want it a little bit sweeter, you can experiment up to ½)
  • 1/2 teaspoon sea salt
  • 1 teaspoon vanilla extract
  • ½ cup cocoa powder, Dutch-process
  • 3 large eggs
  • 1 cup and 2 Tablespoons almond flour
  • 1 teaspoon baking powder
  • 1 Tablespoon of Greek yogurt
  • 4 squares of melted 90% dark chocolate
  • (optional if giving to children) shot of espresso
  • (optional) 2 Tablespoons of Hemp powder
  • Additional items if desired: ¼ cup of sour cherries and ¼ cup of semi sweet chocolate chip

Instructions:

  1. Melt the butter in a pan until the nutty aroma releases under medium heat.
  2. In a medium-sized bowl, stir together the melted butter, (optional: hemp powder), xylitol, salt, vanilla, cocoa, Greek yogurt, and eggs.
  3. Add the espresso.
  4. Melt the dark chocolate. Pour into the melted butter mix.
  5. Stir in the almond flour and baking powder.
  6. At this point, you can add other ingredients to pimp out your brownies (i.e. semi sweet chocolate chips & sour cherries, white chocolate & cranberries, walnuts) But if you are a brownie purist, keep it classy.
  7. Put batter in the fridge for 24 hrs, if you are desperate to try them sooner, put in the freezer for 2 hrs.
  8. The next day: Preheat the oven to 180°C. Grease an 8″ square pan or to make your life easier, line the pan with wax paper and enough so you can extract the brownies once its cooled.
  9. Pour the batter into the prepared pan, spreading it to the edges.
  10. Bake the brownies for 33 to 38 minutes, until the top is set. Use a toothpick inserted in the center-if it comes out nearly clean, with perhaps a few wet crumbs, its ready.
  11. Remove the brownies from the oven and cool them for about 15 minutes before cutting. Once the brownies are cool, cover them tightly with plastic. Store at room temperature for several days; freeze for longer storage.

 

Featured, Fitness

Animal Flow

July 1, 2017

Flow and Learn to Move Better.

Burn Fat, Build Muscle, and Get Back to Your Primal Roots

Dublin-Recently featured in The Irish Times as one of Five Ways to Get Fit this Fall

Animal Flow is an innovative new fitness program that combines ground-based movement with elements of various body-weight training disciplines to create a fun, challenging workout that emphasizes multi-planar, fluid movement. Athletes and fitness enthusiasts of all levels will find significant benefits from the practice.

All animal movements place the body in a “four pillar” position, meaning your hands and feet are touching the floor. By using animal forms for exercise you will be experiencing Animal Flow’s unique multi-planar technique. Exercise becomes more fluid rather than compartmentalized.

Benefits:

  • Increased mobility
  • Fun way to improve your flexibility
  • Improved core stability
  • More Power & Muscular Endurance
  • Improved neuromusclular communication
  • New cardio conditioning that is never boring

Each class comprises of 6 components: Wrist Mobilizations; Form Specific Stretches; Activations; Traveling Forms; Switches & Transitions; and the Flows.

Where did the Animal Flow method come from? Who developed it
and why?

Animal Flow was created by Mike Fitch and his personal journey into bodyweight disciplines. Animal Flow is a combination of his experience with gymnastics, Parkour, hand balancing, circus arts, breakdancing, and traditional progressive body weight training.

While each of the bodyweight disciplines is unique in its own way, they all share common elements. One of these is the concept is “flow” where you seamlessness link the movements together. These movements are powerful for improving the function of the human body.

Animal Flow Classes So who can do Animal Flow?

Animal Flow is for everyone. No matter your age, fitness level, you will notice a change in the way you move.

Of course if you have an injury or recovering form a medical condition, you should consult your physician to get the green light.

Where you may have seen Animal Flow?

Animal Flow has been featured and covered by media all over the world, from IDEA Fitness Conference, Wellfest.ie, The Independent, ECA World Fitness Conference, CBS New York, LA Times, The Doctors, and Mens Health. Last year WellFest had Animal Flow workshops featuring Master Instructor Richard Scrivener from the UK.

Where can I take Classes in Ireland?

animalflowdublin1

NEW CLASS SCHEDULE (updated as of July 2017)

Strive Studio, 81 Ashgrove, Kill Ave. Deansgrange. 

animal flow dublin kaman

 

There are also other amazing instructors certified in Ireland at the Irish Strength Institute, Pilates Limerick, Setanta Fitness, and independently.  Don’t worry if you can’t find an instructor near you, more are getting certified soon(as you can see from below!)

Here are some other instructors doing classes in Dublin if my schedule doesn’t suit:

Wild Geese 14 Magennis Pl, Dublin

Taught by L1 Certified Instructor and  winner of IUKL World Kettlebell Championships Maria Moran at 7am every Thursdays. Maria does a great blend of mobility and Animal Flow moments. You won’t be disappointed.

Christchurch Fitness Centre  12 Bridge Street Lower, Dublin 8

Taught by Shane and Marcin every Monday at 6pm. Great fun with these guys. Beginners welcome.

FFS Gym  34/47 Lower Leeson St, Dublin 2

The team at FFS are gold. They have Movement & Mobility Classes which incorporates Animal Flow with other methods.

 

Sweaty Betty Run Sale

Recipes

Chocolate Cake Brownies

March 8, 2017

There is absolutely nothing better than brownies when the chocolate craving hits. These yummy cakey brownies are not only healthy, contain no refined sugar but has a vegetable! Now your brownie indulgence can be a guilt-free pleasure.

Ingredients:

  • 1 cup almond meal
  • 3 Tablespoons coconut flour
  • 1/2 teaspoon sea salt
  • 1/2 cup unsweetened cocoa powder
  • 1/2 teaspoon of cinnamon.
  • 2 Tablespoons of honey (optional if you want it a little sweeter)
  • 1 shot of espresso
  • 9 large medjool dates (pitted)
  • 1 whole grated courgette
  • 1 Tablespoon of pure vanilla extract
  • 2 whole eggs and 1 yolk
  • 1/2 cup nut butter (almond, hazelnut, or cashew)
  • 2 oz. dark chocolate(85%)
  • 1/3 cup of coconut oil (70grams)
  • Optional toppings to put on once out of the oven: I added a layer of Sweet Freedom Chocolate shot and a sprinkle of chopped nuts and desiccated coconut

Directions

  • Preheat the oven to 175C
  • Cut up parchment paper to cover a 8 x8 in. pan
  • Mix all dry ingredients and set aside
  • Grate the courgette and take a cheese cloth or dish towel to wring out the water
  • In a high power blender or food processor, mix honey, dates, eggs, and nut butter till smooth
  • Bring a small pot filled with 1/3 water to boil and place a smaller heat resistant bowl to heat up the coconut oil and chocolate. Mix with wet ingredients when melted through.
  • Add courgette into the wet ingredients. (alternatively if you are really trying to be sneaky, peel the skin, and blend it with the wet ingredients and no one is the wiser)
  • Mix wet ingredients with dry and pour into pan.

Bake for approx 25-30 minutes(it should have a little give when you press you thumb into the middle). These are also freezer friendly, wrap them up in wax paper and keep for another day.

Nutrition, Recipes

Kombucha Adventures, Part 2 Flavouring

January 30, 2017

This article is long overdue. After a little shy of 10 months of making my own kombucha, here is the supplement to the original. I am going to share, the good, bad, and messy parts of making your own flavours.

After the initial fermentation process of 7-30 days, pour about 3/4 of the brew into a separate air-tight container at room temperature. Put them in the fridge to once you are happy with the taste to stop it from fermenting further.

Tips for flavouring

  • When using fresh juices: Use 12-25% juice and the rest kombucha
  • When using fresh, frozen, or dried fruit use 20-30% fruit depending on how sweet the fruit is, and fill the rest with kombucha.
  • If flavoring with herbs, the variety and strength of herbs varies greatly. Experiment to come up with the best ratios and combinations for your taste preferences.
  • For flavor extracts such as almond or vanilla extract, start with 1/4 teaspoon extract per cup of kombucha and adjust to taste. Remember the flavor will continue to develop during the second fermentation period.


Tips for Bottling your Kombucha and achieving the sought after Effervescence:

1. Bottle F1 (Fermentation 1) when there’s a nice balance of sweetness and acidity. It takes approximately 1-2 weeks to build up a nice amount of carbonation. Experiment with different types of teas (except Early Grey, Chai)  for  F1. I found the best combination was green and black tea. The reason not to use Earl Grey and other flavoured teas is because of the bergamot oil. I would stick to the simpler teas and add the more complex flavours in F2.

2. Bottle into one plastic bottle at the same time you fill your glass bottles. This is an excellent tip from Kombucha Brooklyn for a controlled f2 which will serve as a model help you to know when a good amount of CO2 has built up, based on your environment (temperature) and the unique qualities of your brew. Your plastic bottle will tell you there’s carbonation when it’s very tight, and thus clearly pressurized. So, when you know your plastic bottle has carbonation, your glass bottles will too. This will possibly help avoid the explosion of kombucha in your home.

3. Leave 1″ of headroom in your bottle.  It will oxidize your brew, and make it more likely that bacteria are still active, thus creating more acids, potentially contributing off-flavors.

4. Search for good bottles.  Use flip-top bottles, Ball mason jars, or the amber beer bottles. Any glass bottle that can keep your kombucha air tight. plastic.

5. Add raisins or a 1/2 teaspoon of sugar. Remember sugar is what sparks yeast the most, and the yeast are responsible for the bubbles. You can use a 1/2 teaspoon of plain white sugar per 12oz bottle, and that’s what many beers do to create carbonation.

6. Use a teacloth. When opening your f2, don’t shake the bottle. Just like anything bubbly, shaking it will cause a massive pop with your kombucha-causing it going everywhere. And if you are successful for achieving the much sought after carbonation, it will rise to the top so make sure you are near a sink with a teacloth over the lid, and open with care over a deep container ready to catch the kombucha that escapes!

My Favourite Recipes:

apple cinnanomLemon-lime Kombucha

  • Ingredients
    • Zest one of lemon and lime
    • Juice of half of lemon and lime and juice
    • 1/2 teaspoon of raw cane sugar
    • 8 raisins
    • Fill the rest with F1 kombucha

Pineapple-Mint-Ginger

  • Ingredients
    • 20-30% pineapples
    • 2 sprigs of mint leaves slices up
    • 8-12 raisins
    • Fill rest of bottle with kombucha

Strawberry Basil

  • Ingredients
    • 20-30% strawberries
    • 6 basil leaves
    • 8-12 raisins
    • Fill rest of bottle with kombucha

Raspberry Mint

  • Ingredients
    • 20-30% raspberries
    • 2 sprigs of mint
    • 8-12 raisins
    • Fill rest of bottle with kombucha

Apple Cinnamon

  • Ingredients
    • 20-30% sweet apples
    • 2 sticks of cinnamon( less if you are making less than 2 L)
    • 8-12 raisins
    • 1/2 teaspoon of coconut cane sugar
    • Fill rest of bottle with kombucha

You can find more wonderful resources from www.culturesforhealth.com or www.kombuchkamp.com

 

 

Recipes

Devilishly Dark Chocolate Chip Cookies

January 8, 2017

After experimenting during the holidays, I have come up with an (almost) Paleo version of a dark chocolate chip cookie that is to die for. Its low in sugar, and contain no grains. Its just as satisfying with a cup of the Gold Blend Lyon’s Irish Tea or a glass of cold milk. 😉

Ingredients

  • 150 grams of Almond flour
  • 50 grams of 99% Lindt Dark Chocolate
  • 40 grams of 85% Lindt Dark Chocolate
  • 1/4 cup of Unsweetened Cocoa Powder (I used Nua)
  • 1 1/2 teaspoon of baking soda
  • 1 teaspoon of vanilla powder(I used Nua but if you don’t see the brand at the shop, you can scrap one vanilla bean)
  • 1/4 teaspoon of salt
  • 1 teaspoon of cinnamon
  • 1/2 cup of unsalted soft butter(leave out for 30-60 mins in room temperature)
  • 1/2 cup of coconut palm sugar
  • 1/4 cup of xylitol
  • 1 Tablespoon of Psyllium Husk (This is optional as well, but is used to helps to bind cookies made with almond flour or it may get too crumbly)
  • 1 large cold egg
  • 1 1/2 teaspoon of vanilla extract
  • Handful of semi-sweet chocolate chips(optional) and 1/4 cup of cocoa nibs

Optional: Add 1/2 shot of espresso to bring out the chocolate flavours.

Directions:

  1. Place a rack in the middle of the oven. Preheat to 180 degrees C. Line two baking sheet with parchment paper.
  2. Break up the Dark Chocolates. Put the Dark chocolates 85% and 99% into a heatproof container in a saucepan of barely simmering water. Stir the chocolate occasionally until melted and smooth. Remove from water and set aside.
  3. Sift the flour , cocoa powder, baking soda, cinnamon, vanilla powder, and salt into a medium bowl and set aside.
  4. In a large bowl, using an electric mixer on low, beat the butter, coconut sugar and xylitol until smooth. (1 minute)
  5. Add the melted dark chocolate into the butter and sugar mix until blended.
  6. Add the large egg and vanilla extract until blended. (1 minute)
  7. Add the flour mixture until incorporated.
  8. Fold in the chocolate chips and cocoa nibs.
  9. Using soup spoon, scoop one spoonful onto baking sheet. Space cookies approximately 3 inches apart to give them room to expand. You should be able to fit 12 per tray.
  10. Bake one sheet at a time. It should be in the oven for 12-16 minutes. Be sure to take a peek at them at 12 minutes, if you want them to be a little crispier, leave them in for longer.
  11. Cookies can be wrapped in waxed paper and stored in freezer for in case of emergency sweet attacks!

darkchocolatecookie_2

 

Fitness

Secret to Getting Ahead

January 1, 2017

The secret of getting ahead is getting started. The secret of getting started is breaking your complex overwhelming tasks into manageable tasks, and then starting on the first one.

-Mark Twain

Have you ever wished for a few more hours in the day? Why is it that some people seem to get everything done effortlessly and others feel that time constantly eludes them? The secret to managing your time well isn’t working more hours or sleeping less. It is about prioritising the important things and learning to use the time you have more efficiently and effectively. The secret is working smarter, not harder.

Some of us, by nature, organise and get tasks out of the way before we relax, while others of us play first and work later. It is important to first recognise which type you are and whether your style is allowing you to have the life you really want. Maybe you are super-organised at work, but you’re burned out because you don’t know how to make time for yourself.  Or, maybe you are more free spirited person who knows how to relax, but are dissatisfied because you aren’t fulfilling your goals and dreams.

Rather than labelling yourself or beating yourself up, realise that time management is an area of your life that you can strengthen. Like a new muscle, it takes practice and repetition to make it stronger. To help you get started, here are some steps to streamline your days at work and at home. Try the first one or two that jump out at you:

  • Allocate time for planning and organizing.
  • Create to-do lists that are realistic, not intimidating. Use only one to-do list.
  • Under-schedule your time: Leave time for the unexpected and for interruptions. When you estimate how long something will take, add on a third of that time.
  • Schedule your time in a way that reduces interruptions that lower your productivity.
  • Practice the art of intelligent neglect: Eliminate trivial tasks.
  • Prioritize what is most important and do that first.
  • Consider your biological prime time: At what time of day do you work best? Plan to do your most important work at that time.
  • If you say yes to everything that comes your way, learn to say no.
  • Ask for help and delegate.
  • In the evening make your to-do list for the next day, so it will be out of your brain and on a piece of paper. Leave work with a clear head and a clean desk.
  • Acknowledge yourself daily for all that you have accomplished.

Also take a look at the two biggest hindrances to using time effectively: procrastinating and lacking purpose. We usually procrastinate when a task seems too daunting, too large or too complex, or when we feel we won’t be able to handle it. When you get that “deer in the headlights” feeling, try “chunking”: break the large task into smaller, manageable action steps and start with the first one. We also often drag our heels or use our time inefficiently because we are bored, unengaged and uninspired. The most effective people will tell you that they love what they do and are aligned with a greater purpose. When it comes to managing your time, you may need to ask the larger questions, “Am I doing what I love to do? Am I doing something meaningful to me?”

As you strengthen your new time management muscle, keep your focus on getting organised so that you can live the life you came here for. Instead of being a chore, good time management can be your ticket to more fun, greater satisfaction and a vibrant, exciting life.

Featured, Services

2017 Class Times

December 31, 2016

New Animal Flow Class and Seminar Times:

Animal Flow is functional movement class that recruits your entire body for strength. Mimicking Animal Movements and using the floor as your only equipment, you will use every muscle you have to move. By linking one movement to the next you create a seamless flow.

Animal Flow in Strive Studio starts July  2017 with 3 classes weekly. Monday at 6:45pm, Wednesday at 11am, and Saturdays at 11am. 

We will also be running a partnership with Reform Pilates Blackrock starting Nov 9th. Class times will be 10-11am.  In the class series you will learn the foundations of Animal Flow and how to incorporate it into your training-whether you are a beginner, or already have a training program, you will see the benefits of increased mobility, strength in your core, and overall tone in your body from this bodyweight movement workout. Please email to pre-book.

Private Personal Training, Health Coaching, and Animal Flow Instruction also available.

comfort-zone

 

Recipes

Healthy Cinnamon Chocolate Chip Cupcakes

August 8, 2016

This cupcake recipe is delicious and healthier. I love giving this to my toddler as a snack.  There is no refines sugar. It can be made in a pan, in a loaf, or whatever you fancy.

 

Ingredients

Wet ingredients:

  • 1 C (250 ml) Unsalted butter
  • ¾ C of Xylitol (can lessen to ½ cup if your bananas are really ripe)
  • 2 Large eggs
  • 1 t (5 ml) Vanilla
  • 1 C (250 ml) Dairy sour cream
  • 3 1/2 Mashed  bananas

Dry ingredients:

  • 1 1/2 C  Wholemeal flour
  • 1 1/2 C Almond flour
  • 2 t (10 ml) Baking powder
  • 2 t (10 ml) Baking soda
  • 1 T Bee pollen(optional added into flour)

Dry topping

  • 1 t (5 ml) ground cinnamon
  • ½ C (125 ml) coconut sugar
  • 3/4 C semi-sweet chocolate chips(or less)
  • For the top layer you can add chopped Walnuts (I added Nutmost Activated Walnuts)

Directions:

  1. Cream together butter and sugar
  2. Add eggs one at a time, beating well after each addition
  3. Add vanilla and mashed bananas
  4. Mix until smooth
  5. Combine flour, baking power, baking soda, (optional bee pollen)
  6. Add to sour cream into banana mixture, pour mixture into ending dry
    ingredients.
  7. Spoon and spread half the batter into a baking item of choice.
  8. Combine cinnamon and brown sugar
  9. Sprinkle half the mixture over the batter in the pan
  10. Top with half the chocolate chips(Optional idea to lower the amount of sugar is to put the chips in rows or a circle of chocolate chips)
  11. Repeat layers ( I like to do one middle layer, and a top layer. But you can do more than two layers.)
  12. Bake at 350oF (190oC) for 40 to 50 minutes (its done when you stick a tooth=pick into the middle and its not gooey)

Tip: To make it more decadent, I like to slather a little bit of Meriden Almond butter on top. Its super filling and satisfying.

Nutrition, Recipes

Paleo Strawberry Rhubarb Crumble Bars

July 5, 2016

What do you get when you combine a yummy bar with a crumble? Magic. Its rhubarb season and there is no better way to make use to them but in a healthy decadent bar.

Crust:

  • 2 cups almond flour
  • 1/4 cup extra virgin coconut oil
  • 1/4 cup maple syrup
  • 1/8 tsp Himalayan pink sea salt

RhubarbfillingRhubarb & Strawberry Jam Center:

  • 2 cup frozen or fresh rhubarb, chopped finely
  • 2 cup frozen of fresh strawberries, chopped finely
  • 2 T xylitol
  • 1/4 cup kombucha(can also use water, or juice)
  • 2 tbsp arrowroot powder
spinach

Optional spinach layer


For the crumble:

  • ½ cup chopped pecans
  • ¾ cups almond flour
  • 2 Tablespoons coconut flour
  • 1 teaspoon cinnamon
  • ¼ teaspoon salt
  • 1 T honey (can add more if you want it sweeter)
  • 4 Tablespoons coconut oil

Instructions:

  1. Preheat oven to 350°F.  Line the bottom of a 8×8 inch square baking pan with parchment paper.
  2. In a large bowl, combine the ingredients for the crust with mixer.
  3. Evenly press the dough onto the bottom of the prepared baking pan.
  4. Bake for 15 minutes. The crust is done when it is lightly brown and firm to the touch.
  5. Mix all the rhubarb & strawberry jam ingredients in a medium sized pot and turn the heat to low.
  6. Stir the ingredients and continue stirring until the mixture has thickened. (should look like jam)
  7. Wait until jam is cooled
  8. Optional Step: add half a bag of raw washed spinach into a blender with half the cooled jam and blend until fine
  9. Pour spinach mixture into the crust.
  10. Gently pour in the rest of jam covering the green jam mixture
  11. Mix the pecans, flours, cinnamon, salt and honey together in a medium mixing bowl. Cut in the coconut oil with your hands until the mixture begins to form crumbs.
  12. Sprinkle the crumble mixture over the filling.
  13. Optional Step: add a few slices strawberries on top for decoration.
  14. Bake for 35-40 minutes.
  15. The bars are done when the crumble top is lightly brown.
  16. Allow the bars to cool completely for a few hours.
  17. Cut the bars into 8 squares.
  18. Store the bars in your refrigerator.
Fitness

Rice Bucket Wrist Strengthening Exercises

May 18, 2016

The Rice Bucket Exercise is a simple but very effective exercise used regularly by American Football players to build arm and handgrip strength. It is deceptively simple: by simply pushing your hands – with fingers extended – into a bucket of raw rice, you will build strength from your fingers all the way to your shoulders.

Preparation:

  1. Fill a large bucket with raw rice to a depth of about 6-9 inches (the rice should be high enough to submerge your hand when fully extended).
  2. Place the bucket on a stable, waist-high table. Then, stand close enough to the bucket so that your lower abdominals are touching the bucket. Place your forearms against the inner side of the bucket while digging your hands into the rice. Remember, the deeper you go into the rice with your hands, the more resistance you will receive.

You can either do one hand and switch, or submerge both hands in the rice.

Basic Technique

Push your extended hand into the bucket with your palms facing outward. When your hand is fully submerged, grab a handful of rice and – with your fist remaining submerged in the bucket – slowly turn your wrist in a clockwise direction (towards your body) until your (clenched) palms are facing inward. Repeat.

Grab and Drop

Push your extended hand into the rice. When fully submerged, grab a fistful of rice, lift your hand and open your fist (dropping the rice) once you get close to the top of the bucket. Repeat.

 

Internal Wrist Rotation

With palms facing away from your body, push your extended hand gently into the bucket until fully submerged. Then rotate your wrist upward (fingers moving toward the inside of your forearm) while drawing your elbows close to your side. Repeat.

 

External Rotation

With you palms facing each other, gently submerge both hands. Then rotate each hand inward (thumb moving inward toward your abdomen) for as far as you are comfortable or until your palms are facing outward and the backs of your hands are facing each other with your elbows pointing out. Repeat.

 

4 Way Palm Drop

  1. Palms facing each other, submerge, grab, lift and drop.
  2. Palms facing away submerge, grab, lift and drop.
  3. Palms facing your body submerge, grab, lift and drop.
  4. Palms facing away from your body submerge, grab, lift and drop.

The Pincher

With hands submerged in the rice, use your thumbs to slowly pinch two fingers together, starting with index finger down to your pinky. Once you have done one cycle, go back to the 4 Way Palm Drop (internal and external) before coming back to this exercise for 1-2 more sets.

Cardio Palms

Open and close fully submerged hands quickly for 8-10 reps. Rest and repeat 2 or more times.